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Project CO2SeaStone

Carbfix will be involved in the first full cycle of CO2 capture, transportation and permanent mineralisation storage utilising the Carbfix method with seawater. This is a partnership project between Carbfix, ETH Zürich and University College London (UCL).

The CO2 will be captured from Swiss industrial emitters (waste water treatment plant), transported on land to Rotterdam, and then shipped to Reykjavík where it will be transported by truck to the storage site at Reykjanes peninsula. Pilot-scale CO2 injection activities are scheduled for Summer 2022, with preparational phases already underway. The access to a pre-existing injection well has been secured with the geothermal operator HS Veitur and approved by national authorities (Ministry of Environment, National Planning Agency, Iceland).

Proof of concept has been shown through laboratory and modelling work, conducted at the University of Iceland and CNRS in France, demonstrating the feasibility of CO2 mineralization in seawater. The upcoming pilot injection project will demonstrate the validity of incorporating seawater into the Carbfix method at pilot-scale. This has significant implications of applying the Carbfix method globally, particularly in regions where fresh water is scarce. Additionally, the full life cycle approach of the project i.e., capturing and transporting CO2 from mainland Europe to Iceland is a proof of concept that will implemented at the Carbfix Coda Terminal, with Coda CO2 injection commencing in 2025.

The amount of fresh water and seawater (at 25 °C) required to dissolve 1 tonne of CO2 as a function of CO2 partial pressure, indicating that the solubility of CO2 in seawater is only slightly less than the solubility in freshwater (Snæbjörnsdóttir et al., 2020).

Future designs of advanced carbon mineralisation operations may include: an industrial Carbfix operation incorporating offshore injections and direct air capture (DAC) installations with carbon mineralisation technology (onshore and offshore). Onshore operations will dissolve CO2 in water prior to injection and offshore injection dissolve CO2 in seawater (Snæbjörnsdóttir et al., 2020).

This project is funded by Eurostars and the Technology Development Fund.