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Industry sector

The Carbfix technology can be applied within the industrial sector at any concentrated stream of CO2 that is located near favorable rock formations (see Where it works) or CO2 transport networks. Carbfix offers consultancy services and carries out feasibility studies tailored to each project and facility. Factors such as flue gas composition, local geology and water availability determine whether on-site storage or transport to offsite storage facilities are most feasible for customers wanting to permanently convert their CO2 emissions to stone.

Graph of cost vs CO2 concentration for various industries

Carbfix has carried out generic cost estimates and process simulations for selected industries, detailing water-, energy requirements and associated operational costs. Carbfix can be deployed as either a single or two-step solution:

Single step solution where CO2 in flue gas is directly dissolved in water in a pressurized capture plant and injected for mineral storage.

Two-step solution where CO2 is first captured using any other capture technology before dissolving in water and injected for mineral storage.

In general, direct carbon capture in water becomes more economical when the volume concentration of CO2 exceeds 10 – 20%. In addition, Carbfix water capture offers the following advantages:

  • No chemicals used, other than water (or seawater)
  • Co-capture of other soluble polluting gases such as sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and Fluorine (F). These polluting gases participate in reactions underground, forming minerals to various extent
  • Less stringent requirements for pipe and casing material than for purified CO2

A simplified process diagram for Carbfix implementation in industry is shown below. This setup has been in operation in the Hellisheiði geothermal power plant in Iceland since 2014.

Process diagram for Carbfix implementation at a geothermal power plant. Water and emissions exit the plant and go through a scrubbing tower. There CO2 (and H2S) is dissolved in water and the CO2 charged water is injected into the bedrock.

Collaboration with heavy industry in Iceland

In June 2019, the government of Iceland, Reykjavik Energy - the mother company of Carbfix, and the heavy industry in Iceland signed a trilateral Declaration of Intent to explore whether the Carbfix process is technologically and economically viable to reduce CO2 emissions from their industrial facilities, which notably account for 40% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions (excluding LULUCF).

Upcoming industry partnerships

Upcoming industry partnerships are underway and for the Coda Terminal with industries from North Europe and shipping companies, for more details see here.


Carbfix offers consultancy services to industries covering each phase of carbon mineral storage, including initial site-specific feasibility studies. For more information, contact us.

The up-scaled Carbfix technology is not limited to the geothermal sector. It is adaptable to several hard-to-abate industries such as energy, steel, cement, ammonia, and waste management. Thus, implementation of the up-scaled Carbfix technology in other industrial sectors could contribute to up to 60% of the 2030 emission reduction target within Iceland, as well as being applicable overseas under Carbfix-compatible conditions.

Check the Carbfix Atlas for more information on feasible locations.